understanding graphite cores in nuclear reactors

The Significance of Carbon 14 in Graphite Reactor

It is estimated that there are at least 250,000 tonnes of irradiated graphite worldwide that will require eventual disposal. This graphite arises from a number of sources, but principally comprises moderator and structural materials for experimental reactors, production

Earthquake response of a multiblock nuclear reactor

The complex dynamics of a quarter-scale model of a graphite nuclear reactor core, representative of the second generation of British advanced gas-cooled nuclear reactors, is investigated numerically and experimentally. Advanced gas-cooled nuclear reactor cores

Improving damage detection in nuclear reactor cores

Improving damage detection in nuclear reactor cores The need All but one of the UK's operating nuclear power stations are Advanced Gas-cooled Reactors (AGRs) which contain around 3,000 graphite fuel bricks forming part of the reactor core.

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The British nuclear industry has heavily invested in graphite reactor technology, with every reactor now constructed having a graphite core. In 1934 Enrico Fermi found that neutrons activated target materials more efficiently if they were moderated: he did so by passing neutrons through materials with relatively light atoms to dissipate the high initial kinetic energy of fast neutrons.

Graphite research to support AGR life extensions

AGR reactors feature a graphite moderator and are cooled using carbon dioxide. The graphite blocks cannot be replaced or repaired during the operating life of the reactors. However, radiation damage changes the shape and size of the crystallites that comprise graphite, a process known as dimensional change, which in turn degrades the mechanical properties of the graphite.

Jacobs to study radioactivity in graphite nuclear reactor

The company will compare it with the releases from irradiated graphite in earlier reactor types, including the UK's first generation of Magnox civil nuclear power stations. Jacobs said that the research will have a significant bearing on the safe management and disposal of graphite wastes that are arising from the decommissioning of 14 advanced gas-cooled reactors (AGR).

Radiation defects in graphite

The principal focus is on behaviour at the atomic and microstructural level, with an interest both in understanding graphite moderator damage in nuclear reactors and building a foundation for the range of emerging technological applications of defect-engineered

Deuterium migration in nuclear graphite: Consequences

In this paper, we aim at understanding tritium behavior in the graphite moderator of French COSUB2/SUB-cooled nuclear fission reactors (called UNGG for Uranium Naturel-Graphite-Gaz) to get information on its distribution and inventory in the irradiated graphite waste after their dismantling. These findings should be useful both to improve waste treatment processes and to foresee tritium

Nuclear graphite for high temperature reactors.

Nuclear Graphite for High temperature Reactors B J Marsden AEA Technology Risley, Warrington Cheshire, WA3 6AT, UK Abstract The cores and reflectors in modem High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors (HTRs) are constructed from graphite components.

James Fisher wins EDF contract for graphite core

Cumbria-based company James Fisher Nuclear (JNF) announced on 13 March that it had won a major contract from EDF-Energy to produce inspection tools that will use innovative eddy current technology to assess the condition of the graphite cores

Improving damage detection in nuclear reactor cores

All but one of the UK's operating nuclear power stations are Advanced Gas-cooled Reactors (AGRs) which contain around 3,000 graphite fuel bricks forming part of the reactor core. The fuel assemblies are periodically raised and lowered through these bricks as part of the normal operation of the reactor, for example when refuelling is required.

Graphite

A graphite-moderated reactor is a nuclear reactor that uses carbon as a neutron moderator, which allows natural uranium to be used as nuclear fuel. The first artificial nuclear reactor, the Chicago Pile-1, used nuclear graphite as a moderator. Graphite-moderated reactors were involved in two of the best-known nuclear disasters: an untested

Understanding Graphite Behavior in Nuclear Reactor Environments

Understanding Graphite Behavior in Nuclear Reactor Environments for Lifetime Predictions Anne A. Campbell, Ph.D. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, TN campbellaaornl.gov US-NRC Advanced Non-Light Water Reactors – Materials and Component

Characterization, Treatment and Conditioning of Radioactive Graphite from Decommissioning of Nuclear Reactors

nuclear power plants and in many research and plutonium-production reactors. It is used primarily as a neutron reflector or neutron moderator, although graphite is also used for other features of reactor cores, such as fuel sleeves. Many of the graphite-moderated

Radiation defects in graphite

The principal focus is on behaviour at the atomic and microstructural level, with an interest both in understanding graphite moderator damage in nuclear reactors and building a foundation for the range of emerging technological applications of defect-engineered

INVESTIGATING THE EFFECTS OF STRESS ON THE MATERIAL PROPERTIES OF GRAPHITE

A detailed understanding of the properties of graphite is required to ensure its safe and continued use as a moderator, and as a structural component, in British nuclear reactors. Considerable stresses are generated in graphite components during reactor

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In the UK there are currently seven AGR nuclear power stations (5 in England and 2 in Scotland) each with two operating reactors. They are all owned and operated by British Energy, and are located and known as Dungeness B, Hartlepool, Heysham 1, Heysham 2, Hinkley Point B, Hunterston B and Torness.

Physical Model of an AGR Nuclear Reactor Graphite Core

This is vital as many of the UK's older, graphite core reactors are reaching the end of their estimated life cycle and new nuclear plants are yet to be available. Validation is carried out by testing a quarter scale model of a nuclear core (built by the PLEX

Radiation defects in graphite

The principal focus is on behaviour at the atomic and microstructural level, with an interest both in understanding graphite moderator damage in nuclear reactors and building a foundation for the range of emerging technological applications of defect-engineered

Investigation of the Characteristics of Neutron Fields in

We present results investigating the characteristics of neutron fields in three channels of a graphite prism with a radionuclide neutron source 238 Pu(α, n) 9 Be, located at its geometric center, and in the central channels of cylindrical moderators installed near the cores of the reactor BARS-6.

Radiation defects in graphite

The principal focus is on behaviour at the atomic and microstructural level, with an interest both in understanding graphite moderator damage in nuclear reactors and building a foundation for the range of emerging technological applications of defect-engineered

Physical Model of an AGR Nuclear Reactor Graphite Core

This is vital as many of the UK's older, graphite core reactors are reaching the end of their estimated life cycle and new nuclear plants are yet to be available. Validation is carried out by testing a quarter scale model of a nuclear core (built by the PLEX team) on the shaking table in

Management of Ageing in Graphite Reactor Cores

Nuclear power currently contributes nearly a quarter of the electricity needs of the UK. Much of this is from nuclear reactor plants developed some fifty years ago. Consequently, in the next few decades, many of these reactors and components are coming to the end

Graphite, Ceramics, and Ceramic Composites for High

Graphite, Ceramics, and Ceramic Composites for High-Temperature Nuclear Power Systems - Volume 34 Issue 1 To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-replycambridge is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal

Open Knowledge Wiki

In the UK there are currently seven AGR nuclear power stations (5 in England and 2 in Scotland) each with two operating reactors. They are all owned and operated by British Energy, and are located and known as Dungeness B, Hartlepool, Heysham 1, Heysham 2, Hinkley Point B, Hunterston B and Torness.

Improved Understanding of the Irradiation Creep

To support the design of structural graphite components for use in the construction of HTGR cores and to justified continued operation for the existing AGR cores through the development of an improved understanding of the irradiation induced creep of graphite.

Physical Model of an AGR Nuclear Reactor Graphite Core

This is vital as many of the UK's older, graphite core reactors are reaching the end of their estimated life cycle and new nuclear plants are yet to be available. Validation is carried out by testing a quarter scale model of a nuclear core (built by the PLEX

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